Employment-tied housing in (post)colonial Africa

  • Employment-tied housing in (post)colonial Africa is a comparative research project reflecting upon how one learns about housing, what housing means, and why it matters to talk about it.

Applying a historical perspective we research housing projects and schemes implemented for workers by colonial powers and later independent African nation-states in the period from 1940s to 1970s in three different yet inter-related settings: DRC, Kenya and Zambia. We use housing as a lens, through which prevalent social, political, economic and cultural processes are reflected. Housing, in our understanding, is an expression of intersections and changing relations between involved actors, be they employers and employees, men and women, owners and subtenants, powerful and powerless.

Linking local experiences to transnational and global developments, we aim to deepen our understanding of how hierarchies and power relations became constructed in and through colonially and post-colonially planned housing projects. In addition, our project seeks to explore possibilities for an integrated discussion between historical and more contemporary approaches to housing and urban studies.


Workshop, Vienna February 2019




On 21 and 22 February Kirsten participated in a two-day workshop entitled "Zwischenräume als Perspektive und Gegenstand kulturwissenschaftlicher Stadtforschung” organized by the Department of European Ethnology at the University of Vienna. As you can see, the department is located in a very prestigious building typical of Vienna's 19th-century bourgeois architecture. Her presentation dealt with rent for municipal housing and colonialism in Zambia. The workshop welcomed a number of international guests; to view the full program please click here

4th Ethno Labs

Together with the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology and the Platform for Mobile Cultures and Societies we participated at the 4th Ethnographic Laboratories in Vienna: "Infrastructures: Imagination, Materiality, Process". Between September 26 and 28, 13 young scholars together with two guests - Jörg Niewöhner (Humboldt University, Berlin) and Antina von Schnitzler (The New School, NY) - discussed their work in progress. 

Research Stay at ZMO


In November 2018,  Kirsten undertook a one month research fellowship stay on housing at the Centre for Modern Oriental Studies (ZMO) in Berlin. She used her teaching-free time to analyse her field research findings, and to work on her publications. 

Lissabon Conference, January 2019


In January 2019, Carl presented a paper entitled “Divided Urbanism - On the Spatial Production of Transportation Infrastructures in Livingstone during Late Colonialism” at the International Congress Colonial and Postcolonial Landscapes: Architecture, Cities, Infrastructures in Lissabon. His paper focused on modes and structures of segregation and exclusion with respect to public transportation infrastructures in Livingstone. For more information and detailed program click here

Official Conference Design by Alessio Agresta

Between August 29 and September 1, Carl participated at the 14th Conference of European Association for Urban History in Rome. He presented his preliminary research findings under the title "Congo Housing is for ‘Well-To-Do’ - Debates About the Application of the Elisabethville Housing Scheme in Northern Rhodesia as a  Symptom of Colonial Uncertainty" in the panel "Planning cities, making places (from 19th to 21st century)".

2.0 Lu'shi research

Office of the Collective of the ODV (Operation Départ Volontaire) in the Cité Gécamines, Lubumbashi @Daniela Waldburger

In August 2018, Daniela returned to Cite Gécamines in Lubumbashi, DRC. She was warmly welcomed by the former workers of Gécamines, with whom she conducted numerous qualitative interviews in Swahili last year. During her second research stay, the workers opened their homes and houses to Daniela and she was able to gain further invaluable insights on their living and housing conditions.

2.0 Zambia research

Linda, former Railway Compound in Livingstone @Carl Bodenstein

During his return research trip to Zambia, from March to June 2018, Carl deepened his knowledge and extended his pilot findings from the previous year. Based on the insights gained from conducted interviews and collected archival materials, he used this stay mostly to fill in the gaps and remove any outstanding ambiguities. In addition, he conducted further numerous interviews with house dwellers in Livingstone.

'Congo Conference' in Oxford

Daniela presenting her paper on Gécamines workers in Lubumbashi, Oxford, 26 April 2018 @Francesca Pugliese

On 26 and 27 April 2018 the Congo Research Network Conference was held at St Antony's College at the University of Oxford. Daniela presented her first findings under the title "Kazi na kuwa mfanyakazi  - c’était bien à l’époque – conception of work and life by Gécamines workers’ in Lubumbashi" in the panel "Worker housing in Congo. A comparison in past and present". The conference brought together junior and senior scholars across the humanities and social sciences, sharing a common interest in the DRC.

Field research in Kenya

Research room in the Kenya National Archives. Martina viewed hundreds of files on colonial housing in Kenya there. @Martina Barker-Ciganikova

During her field research stay in Kenya in Spring 2018, Martina focused on the ‘owner-occupier’ Vasey Housing Scheme launched as pilot scheme in Thika in 1951.  The immediate objective of the Colonial Government while initiating this ‘sites and services scheme’ was to promote stability and to create a responsible African middle class. The scheme has proved to be an experimental blue-print for the whole colony. Martina also conducted qualitative interviews with tenants of Vasey scheme (nowadays Majengo) in Thika. 

Archival research in Brussels

Mwana Shaba, No. 138, Dec. 1966, Library of Contemporary History of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren ©Daniela Waldburger

In February 2018 Daniela continued to scour the state archives in Brussels and the library of Contemporary History of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren for minutes, reports, statistics, photographs, company journals, etc. of the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga and Gécamines concentrating on decisions and policies regarding housing and conditioning measures of the workers. 

Field research in L'shi, DRC

Plan 1967 water supply for Cité Gécamines, Lubumbashi, private property, recognized Aug. 2017 @Daniela Waldburger

In the summer of 2017 Daniela conducted dozens of qualitative interviews with former employees of UMHK in Cité Gécamines and Makomeno neighbourhoods in Lubumbashi.

By combining historical and contemporary approaches, she gained invaluable insights into their past and present working and housing situation. 

Field research in Zambia

A cyclist passing a row of houses in the streets of Libuyu in Livingstone, Zambia @Carl Bodenstein

Over a period of four months (March to June 2017) Carl divided his research time in Zambia between the National Archives  in Lusaka and conducting interviews with town dwellers in neighborhoods of Livingstone.

To complement her findings on the official perspective of the Colonial Office gained in Kew, Kirsten, a passionate historian, dedicated her energy entirely to archival research in Lusaka. 

Archival research in Kew, UK

Colonial Office file on African Urban Housing in Kenya from 1953, Kew National Archives @Martina Barker-Ciganikova

Digging through endless archival records, including memoranda, ordinances, pamphlets, statistics, and meeting notes, Martina and Kirsten concentrated on British colonial housing and labour policies in Kenya and Zambia from 1940s to 1960s. Going beyond their individual case studies, they discovered a transfer of ideas, designs, concepts, experts, policies and practices across regions and continents. 

Our lecture series

Winter Term 2017 lecture program Housing for workers (and others) in African cities. @Martina Barker-Ciganikova

In winter term 2017 we organised a lecture series entitled 'Housing for workers (and others) in African Cities.' We welcomed Luce Beeckmans, Cristina Rodrigues, Robert Home and Garth Myers as our guest speakers. For details on their presentation topics click here.  

Housing workshop

Workshop participants Donatien Dibwe Dia Mwembu and Nicholas Sungura with Daniela Waldburger, @Kirsten Rüther

In November 2017 we held our first three-day core workshop in Vienna. With participants from three continents we discussed colonial and post-colonial housing in interdisciplinary perspective. For more details and detailed program of the workshop please click here

Brainstorming retreat

Housing project team at Attersee, Austria: Carl, Ella, Martina, Kirsten and Daniela; @Derek Barker-Ciganik

To reflect upon our impressions, ideas, and all gathered data in the first six months of our project we found retreat at the beautiful Austrian Attersee. For two cold November days we intensely discussed and exchanged our preliminary findings and planned our activities for the coming two years. 

 Outlook 2019

  • Teaching

20th century perspectives on town planning and infrastructure in Africa within the colonial/metropole divide

Lecture, University of Vienna, Summer Term 2019

We organise a new guest lecture series in the coming summer term: 20th century perspectives on town planning and infrastructure in Africa within the colonial/metropole divide. We look forward to welcome scholars from the field of urban planning, architecture, geography, history, environmental studies and other disciplines. Read more... 

  • Publications

Edited volume "Politics of Housing in Post/colonial Africa"

Our first joint publication entitled "Politics of Housing in Post/colonial Africa" is currently in an open peer review process. 

  • Field research

We are currently analysing the rich primary data from our field research stays to the DRC, Kenya and Zambia we conducted in 2017 and 2018. 

We will also regularly update you on our activities and research findings from the field in our blog.



 This was 2018

  • Field research

The first half of the year 2018 we dedicated most of our time to conducting field research to gather further findings for our respective case studies. Daniela returned to the archives in Brussels (February) and Cité Gécamines and Makomeno in Lubumbashi (July-September), Carl undertook his second field reserach visit to Lusaka and Livingstone (April-June) and Martina conducted her field research in the Kenya National Archives in Nairobi on housing schemes in Thika (March-April). Our PI, Kirsten used the time mostly to analyse data from her previous research stays in Kew and Lusaka archives. Moreover, she participated and offered classes within the framework of the Erasmus exchange teaching program at the University of Legon, in Accra, Ghana and in South Africa. Kirsten also organised and managed a student excursion to South Africa and Mozambique. 

The second half of the year we spent mostly in Vienna, analysing our rich data gathered during the field research. In November 2018, Kirsten undertook a one month research fellowship stay on housing at the Centre for Modern Oriental Studies (ZMO) in Berlin.

We also initiated an Erasmus exchange program with the University of Zambia and are looking forward towards an enriching cooperation between our universities.

For more of our activities and findings from the field in 2018 please also check out our blog.

  • Academic events

Conference, Berlin, November 2018

In November 2018, Daniela will participate in the "Big Cities, Small Languages" international conference in Berlin organised by the SOAS World Languages Institute (UK), Mercator Research Centre, the Interdisciplinary Centre for Social and Language Documentation and the Leibniz-Zentrum Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ZAS). 

Conference, VAD Leipzig, June 2018

In June 2018 we participated at the 'African Connections' conference of the Association 
of African Studies in Germany (Vereinigung für Afrikawissenschaften in 
Deutschland/VAD e.V.) in Leipzig. 

Convention, Vienna, April 2018

Kirsten and Daniela held a practical workshop on how to successfully apply for research projects within the framework of the convention Zugänge zu Forschungen über/in Afrika 4. Tagung des Netzwerks „Afrikaforschung in Österreich“ organised at the Department of African Studies at the University of Vienna. Program in pdf

14th EAUH Conference, Rome, August - September 2018

Carl Bodenstein participated at the 14th Conference European Association for Urban History in Rome. He presented a paper under the title "Congo Housing is for ‘Well-To-Do’ - Debates About the Application of the Elisabethville Housing Scheme in Northern Rhodesia as a  Symptom of Colonial Uncertainty". Program pdf.

Conference, Oxford, April 2018

In April 2018, Daniela presented her first findings at the Congo Research Network Conference at the University of Oxford. The title of her paper was Kazi na kuwa mfanyakazi  - c’était bien à l’époque – conception of work and life by Gécamines workers’ in Lubumbashi.